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Table 2 Comprehensive overview of studies using post-natal inhibition of myostatin

From: Role of TGF-β signaling in inherited and acquired myopathies

Disease Model organism Phenotypic findings Ref
Neutralizing antibody: binds to active myostatin and prevents receptor binding
DMDa mdx mice Improved regeneration and function, induced hypertrophy, decreased degeneration (diaphragm) and fibrosis [78, 79]
LGMD2Cb sgcg-/- mice Improved function, induced hypertrophy but no histopathological improvement [80]
LGMD2F sgcd-/- mice Increased muscle mass, regeneration (young) and fibrosis (aged) [81]
mice and rats
Delayed onset of muscle atrophy and functional decline without extending survival [82]
Sarcopenia Agedf mice Prevented loss of body weight, muscle mass and function, and decline in physical activity, reduced apoptosis, no change in fibrosis [44, 83]
Disuse atrophy Adultg mice Partially protected against but did not prevent atrophy [99]
ActRIIB-Fc d : soluble, decoy receptor binding active myostatin
DMD mdx mice Increased body weight and function, induced hypertrophy [84, 100]
LGMD1C CAV-3P104L mice Induced muscle hypertrophy [85]
SMAe SMAΔ7 mice Modestly increased muscle weight and strength, decreased survival [86]
ALS SOD1G93A mice Delayed onset of disease but did not extend survival, reduced weakness after onset [87]
Cachexia Lewis-lung carcinoma Protected against loss of body weight and muscle mass [88]
Cachexia Colon-26 carcinoma Protected against or restored loss of body weight, muscle mass and grip strength, and increased survival [88, 89]
MSTN Propeptide: binds to myostatin and prevents release of active form
DMD mdx mice Induced hypertrophy, increased strength, improved histopathological features of limb and diaphragm, decreased endurance, produced adverse effects on cardiomyopathy [48, 50, 90]
LGMD2A Capn3-/- mice Increased muscle mass and force, no improvement in histopathological features [91]
LGMD2D sgca-/- mice Insufficient delivery of vector resulted in no hypertrophy or any change in necrosis [91]
Muscle Injury Adult mice Increased muscle mass, improved regeneration, decreased fibrosis [92]
Follistatin: inhibitory protein that binds to myostatin
SMA SMAΔ7 mice Improved muscle mass (during early stages of disease), motor function and extended survival [93]
ALS SOD1G93A mice Increased muscle mass (hyperplasia) and strength (not performance) but no survival extension [94]
HDAC Inhibitors: induce expression of follistatin
DMD mdx mice Induced hypertrophy, decreased fibrosis and necrosis, restored muscle architecture, increased strength and performance [95]
LGMD2D sgca-/- mice Induced hypertrophy and reduced fibrosis [95]
Cachexia Colon-26 carcinoma Did not protect against loss of body weight, muscle mass or function [88, 96]
Muscle injury Youngh mice Improved regeneration [97]
MSTN peptide: dominant negative truncated myostatin peptide that binds ActRIIB
Sarcopenia Aged mice Improved grip strength and enhanced inflammatory response after injury [98]
Muscle injury Adult mice Improved regeneration, decrease in necrosis [98]
Antisense RNA: binds myostatin messenger RNA and inactivates it
Cachexia S-180
ascitic tumor
Increased muscle mass [43]
  1. aDuchenne muscular dystrophy.
  2. bLimb-girdle muscular dystrophy.
  3. cAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  4. dActivin type IIB receptor.
  5. eSpinal muscular atrophy.
  6. fAge≥ 15 months.
  7. gAge 3-15 months.
  8. hAge ≤ 3 months.