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Table 2 Protein controls for immunohistochemistry

From: From proteins to genes: immunoanalysis in the diagnosis of muscular dystrophies

Control purpose Protein Normal expression Secondary changes Notes
Preservation of plasma membrane Spectrin Sarcolemma Reduction in immature/regenerating fibres.
Absent or patchy in necrotic fibres.
Absent of patchy in biopsies with artefacts.
May be reduced in fibres with Neo-MHC, utrophin, laminin α5, MHC class I.
Absence of other sarcolemmal proteins.
Regenerating fibres Neo-MHC Fibres unlabelled Labelling of regenerating fibres.
Labelling of atrophic fibres.
Coexpressed with laminin α5, MHC class I, utrophin
Regenerating fibres Utrophin Vessels, nerves and neuromuscular junction Labelling of regenerating fibres.
Labelling of mature fibres in DMD/BMD.
Coexpressed with Neo-MHC, laminin α5, MHC class I
Regenerating fibres, denervation nNOS Sarcolemma Reduction in regenerating and denervated fibres.
Absent in DMD, some BMD and sarcoglycanopathies.
Reduced in fibres expressing utrophin, Neo-MHC, laminin α5, MHC class I
Regenerating fibres Laminin α5 Blood vessels Labelling of regenerating fibres. Labelling of mature fibres in MDC1A. Coexpressed with utrophin, Neo-MHC, laminin α5, MHC class I
Inflammation, regenerating fibres MHC class I Blood vessels Labelling of regenerating fibres.
Sarcolemmal labelling in diseases with inflammatory component.
Coexpressed with utrophin, Neo-MHC, laminin α5
Basement membrane, integrity Laminin β1 Sarcolemma and blood vessels Sarcolemmal labelling reduced or patchy in many dominant and recessive conditions  
Basement membrane, integrity Laminin γ1, Perlecan Sarcolemma and blood vessels Patchy in biopsies with artefacts  
  1. DMD/BMD Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy; MDC1A = congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A; MHC = major histocompatibility complex; Neo-MHC = neonatal myosin heavy chain; nNOS = neuronal nitric oxide synthase.