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Table 1 Other protein kinases implicated in myogenesis

From: The myogenic kinome: protein kinases critical to mammalian skeletal myogenesis

Stagea Kinase Full name Mechanismb References
Satellite cell activation c-Metc N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) human osteosarcoma (HOS) transforming oncogene cellular homologue ? [213215]
Proliferation and/or inhibit differentiation JAK1 Janus/just another kinase 1 Phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 [216]
  p38γ p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase Phosphorylation and repression of MyoD activity [217]
  ROCK1 Rho-associated kinase 1 Blocks activation of the Akt differentiation pathway [218220]
Differentiation c-Abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral
oncogene cellular homologue
Activation of p38 [221, 222]
  CaMK1/4 Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases 1 and 4 Phosphorylates HDAC5, thereby releasing repression of MEF2 [223226]
  DYRK1B Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1B Phosphorylates HDAC5 and HDAC9, thereby releasing repression of MEF2 [227, 228]
  MAPK7d Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 Phosphorylation and activation of MEF2C [229, 230]
  JAK2 Janus/just another kinase 2 Phosphorylation and activation of STAT2 and STAT3 [216, 231]
  PKCζ Protein kinase Cζ Activation of CDK5 [53]
  PKD2 Protein kinase D2 Activation of MEF2D and repression of Pax3 [232]
Fusion cGK1 Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase 1 Phosphorylation and inactivation of FoxO1 [233]
  FAK Focal adhesion kinase Fusogen expression [234, 235]
  PKCθ Protein kinase Cθ Activation of FAK [234]
Hypertrophy ROCK2 Rho-associated kinase 2 Activation of ERK2 and S6K [236]
  1. The protein kinases listed are those that have been clearly implicated in regulating some aspect of myogenesis but have not been studied in detail.
  2. aThe stage of myogenesis regulated by the indicated kinase. bThe mechanism the indicated kinase has been implicated in regulating. cAlso known as hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor receptor (HGFR/SFR). dAlso known as big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5).