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Table 4 In vivo transfection experiments leading to perturbation of the IGF1-Akt pathway in adult skeletal muscle1

From: Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models

Transgene Perturbation Effect References
Igf1 (via virus) Overexpression of Igf1 Muscle fiber hypertrophy (and muscle regeneration) [50, 106]
Igf1 Overexpression of Igf1 Prevention of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy [48, 138]
RasV12C40 (Ras double mutant) Activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway Muscle fiber hypertrophy, which is blocked by rapamycin [58, 69]
c.a. PI3K2 Activation of PI3K Muscle fiber hypertrophy [69, 78]
c.a. Akt Activation of Akt Muscle fiber hypertrophy, which is blocked by rapamycin [69, 78]
c.a. Akt (via virus) Activation of Akt Muscle fiber hypertrophy [139]
c.a.FoxO3 Activation of FoxO3 Muscle fiber atrophy and activation of atrogin-1 reporter [91]
Small interfering RNA to FoxO1 and FoxO3 Knockdown of FoxO1 and FoxO3 by RNA interference Prevention of atrogin-1 reporter upregulation induced by starvation [91]
Rheb3 Activation of Rheb and mTORC1 Muscle fiber hypertrophy [140]
Small interfering RNA to N-WASP Knockdown of N-WASP4 by RNA interference Muscle fiber atrophy [86]
  1. 1Experiments based on intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA or viral vector or small interfering RNA expression vector. Injection of plasmid DNA or siRNA expression vector was followed by electroporation.
  2. 2Constitutively active PI3K.
  3. 3Ras homolog enriched in brain
  4. 4Neuronal Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP).