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Table 1 Some of the important cytokines/chemokines reported in inflammatory myopathies

From: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: pathogenic mechanisms of muscle weakness

Cytokines/Chemokines Potential role References
IL-1α/IL1-β Pro-inflammatory and probably myofibrillar protein break down [3436]
TNF-α Chemo-attractant [37]
TGF-β Pro-fibrotic [39]
IL-17 IL-6 production and HLA class I in muscle cells [40, 41]
IL-151 T-cell activation, development of NK cells and NK-T-cells [51]
Type 1 interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β) Enhance type 1 interferon inducible transcripts (ISG15, MX1, IFIT3 and IRF7) [4244]
Leukotriene B4 Chemo-attractant [45]
Macrophage inflammatory proteins (1α, 1β) Contribute to ongoing muscle inflammation [46]
RANTES2 Chemo-attractant [46]
Resistin/Adipocyte secreted factor Pro-inflammatory, probably involved in metabolic dysregulation [4749]
TWEAK3 Impairs muscle differentiation and myogenesis [50]
  1. 1IL-15 and IL-6 are also called myokines.
  2. 2RANTES: Regulated on activation, normally T expressed and secreted.
  3. 3TWEAK: Tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis.