TSC1-raptor double knockouts resemble RAmKO mice. (A) Western blot analysis of soleus muscles of TSCmKO, TSC-RAmKO and control (ctrl) mice using antibodies directed against the proteins indicated. An equal amount of protein was loaded in each lane. Loading control was α-actinin. (B) Muscle weight of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol) muscles of TSC-RAmKO and control mice. Muscle weight was first normalized to the body weight and is expressed as percentage of the weight of the same muscle from control mice (N = 3 mice for each genotype). (C) Relative mRNA expression of Pgc1α and Pgc1β in soleus muscle of TSC-RAmKO and ctrl mice. Values obtained in control mice were set to 100% (N = 3 mice). Bars in B and C represent mean ± SEM. P-values are ***P <0.001; **P <0.01; *P <0.05. (D) NADH-TR staining of soleus muscle from TSC-RAmKO and control mice. Scale bar = 100 μm. (E) Schematic drawing of the major signaling pathways regulated by mTORC1 and their influence on protein synthesis and degradation.