Andrographolide reduces transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway activity in mdx mice. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of (A) p-Smad-2 and (D) p-Smad-3 (intracellular TGF-β1 mediators) in cryosections of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle from vehicle-treated and andrographolide-treated mdx mice. Bar corresponds to 200 μm. (B,E) Ratio of p-Smad-2 and p-Smad-3 respectively versus total nuclei. (C,F) Quantification of total nuclei per field (in 400X magnification pictures). Values are expressed as mean ± SD of three independent experiments, using three mice for each experimental condition.