Increased apoptosis of
-deficient muscle cells
. (A) TUNEL and Hoechst co-staining on primary muscle cell cultures isolated from wild type (WT) and Galgt1-deficient (Galgt1
) skeletal muscle 1 day after placement in differentiation media. (B) Double immunostaining for Pax7 and TUNEL of Galgt1
−/− skeletal muscle after CTX injection. Apoptotic nuclei are visualized with green fluorescent TUNEL staining, with Pax7+ staining in red. Arrows indicate regions with co-staining. (C) Quantification of TUNEL+ nuclei per visual field in WT and Galgt1
−/− myoblast cultures 1 day after addition of differentiation media. (D) Percentage of cells positive for both Pax7 and TUNEL, relative to all TUNEL+ cells, at various days after cardiotoxin injection of wild type (WT) and Galgt1-deficient (Galgt1
−/−) muscle. (E) Fold difference in TUNEL+ nuclei in the Galgt1
−/− skeletal muscle, relative to WT, at various days after CTX injection. Errors in (C) are SEM for n = 6 experiments with three to four replicates per condition and SEM for n = 6 experiments in (D) and (E) with three to four sections analyzed per muscle. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Bar is 50 or 12.5 μm (insert).