Lack of PGC-1α results in attenuation of autophagic signaling induced by denervation. (A) Autophagy gene expression measured by real time PCR. mRNA fold change between wild type (WT) and PGC-1α KO (KO) control (Con) and denervated (Den). All groups were compared to WT Con, and Gapdh and Actb were used as housekeeping genes. (B-G) Blots and quantification of autophagic proteins in control (C; Con), denervated (D; Den) WT and KO animals. (B) Representative blots. Quantification of (C) parkin, (D) Beclin 1, (E) Atg7, (F) Cathepsin D and (G) Lamp-2. *P < 0.05 significant difference between Con and Den. GAPDH was used as a loading control (n = 4 to 8 for all groups). AU, Arbitrary units; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.