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Table 3 Biochemical parameters in younger, older and sarcopenic older women and men (n = 240)

From: Myostatin as a mediator of sarcopenia versus homeostatic regulator of muscle mass: insights using a new mass spectrometry-based assay

  Younger Older Sarcopenic
  (n = 40) (n = 40) (n = 40)
Women
 Biochemical variables
  Myostatin (ng/mL) 5.5 (3.2–7.3) 7.3 (5.7–11.7)* 5.3 (4.2–8.0)***
  Myostatin/TBLM (ng/ml/kg) 0.142 (0.091–0.195) 0.199 (0.138–0.327)* 0.175 (0.145–0.255)**
  Propeptide (ng/ml) 7.1 (5.2–10.8) 11.4 (7.3–20.1)* 10.0 (6.5–12.4)***
  Propeptide/TBLM (ng/ml/kg) 0.194 (0.139–0.294) 0.292 (0.186–0.203)* 0.307 (0.203–0.417)**
  FLRG (ng/mL) 5.1 (4.3–6.0) 7.3 (6.2–9.7)* 8.3 (6.7–10.6)**
  GASP1 (ng/mL) 7.6 (6.5–10.1) 9.4 (7.2–11.0) 9.2 (7.1–12.2)**
  Total 25-(OH)D (ng/mL) 25.0 (17.3–34.8) 20.0 (14.3–24.0)* 18.5 (14.0–24.8)**
  IGF-1 (ng/mL) 235 (191–305) 141 (93–183)* 105 (78–147)**,***
  IGF-2 (ng/mL) 1160 (958–1375) 1112 (933–1367) 1167 (884–1336)
  IGFBP-2 (ng/mL) 406 (190–621) 447 (308–775) 635 (539–987)**,***
  IGFBP-3 (ng/mL) 4580 (4099–5094) 4096 (3536–4513)* 3913 (3171–4389)**
  Total E1 (pg/mL) 47.0 (33.3–57.8) 31.0 (19.0–37.0)* 23.0 (16.0–29.0)**
  Total E2 (pg/mL) 54.0 (30.5–108.5) 5.6 (4.2–9.1)* 4.9 (3.2–7.3)**
  Total T (ng/dL) 23.5 (18.0–30.0) 16.0 (12.0–24.0)* 21.0 (11.0–30.0)
  Bio E2 (pg/mL) 15.0 (8.2–28.2) 2.1 (1.0–3.2)* 1.0 (0.6–1.7)**,***
  Bio T (ng/dL) 1.5 (0.9–2.1) 1.5 (1.0–2.6) 1.1 (0.7–1.8)***
  SHBG (nmol/L) 63.1 (45.0–95.6) 40.5 (23.2–57.8)* 52.8 (46.7–73.0)***
Men
 Biochemical variables
  Myostatin (ng/mL) 10.5 (9.0–14.4) 7.1 (5.4–8.8)* 6.9 (4.4–8.9)**
  Myostatin/TBLM (ng/ml/kg) 0.192 (0.156–0.241) 0.131 (0.101–0.164)* 0.153 (0.092–0.192)**
  Propeptide (ng/ml) 15.7 (11.7–19.4) 11.8 (7.6–15.7) 10.8 (6.4–14.9)**
  Propeptide/TBLM (ng/ml/kg) 0.276 (0.207–0.328) 0.216 (0.137–0.305) 0.240 (0.153–0.309)
  FLRG (ng/mL) 4.5 (3.8–5.3) 7.5 (6.1–9.4)* 7.4 (6.3–9.9)**
  GASP1 (ng/mL) 9.4 (7.5–10.6) 9.4 (7.3–10.7) 10.3 (8.9–11.9)
  Total 25-(OH)D (ng/mL) 23.5 (17.0–31.8) 21.5 (17.0–25.8) 21.0 (16.0–26.8)
  IGF-1 (ng/mL) 344 (292–446) 193 (114–245)* 169 (103–245)**
  IGF-2 (ng/mL) 1099 (1005–1226) 961 (774–1075)* 964 (785–1071)**
  IGFBP-2 (ng/mL) 244 (142–361) 547 (391–728)* 758 (531–1049)**
  IGFBP-3 (ng/mL) 4469 (3833–4988) 3202 (2596–3581)* 3230 (2613–4019)**,***
  Total E1 (pg/mL) 32.5 (25.3–38.0) 35.0 (30.0–45.0)* 31.0 (25.5–44.0)
  Total E2 (pg/mL) 23.0 (19.0–30.0) 25.0 (20.0–28.0) 23.0 (18.0–29.0)
  Total T (ng/dL) 462 (392–549) 424 (321–526) 484 (388–609)
  Bio E2 (pg/mL) 12.8 (11.0–17.5) 9.5 (7.1–11.0)* 7.4 (5.5–10.0)**
  Bio T (ng/dL) 133 (115–156) 50.8 (37.0–63.5)* 50.8 (37.4–62.7)**
  SHBG (nmol/L) 25.1 (19.4–31.3) 45.5 (39.0–58.6)* 50.3 (39.9–64.0)**
  1. Values are presented as median (IQR)
  2. TBLM total body lean mass, FLRG follistatin-related gene protein, GASP-1 growth and serum protein-1, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF insulin-like growth factor, IGFBP IGF-binding protein, E 1 estrone, E 2 estradiol, T testosterone; SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin
  3. *p < 0.05 younger vs. older; **p < 0.05 younger vs. sarcopenic; ***p < 0.05 older vs. sarcopenic