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Table 2 Differences between GRMD (Mstn +/+) and GRippet (Mstn +/−) dogs (significant (p < 0.05) and trending (p < 0.2))

From: Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures

Test GRippets (Mstn +/−) (mean ± SD) GRMD (Mstn +/+) (mean ± SD) p value
Joint angles
 Maximal hip joint flexion angle (o) 77.5 ± 4.93 63.0 ± 3.61 0.05
 Maximal tarsal joint flexion angle (o) 53.5 ± 7.85 35.0 ± 7.0 0.05
 Maximal stifle joint flexion angle (o) 42.0 ± 5.35 34.0 ± 3.61 0.173
 Tarsal range of motion (o) 104 ± 8.73 123 ± 4.04 0.052
Magnetic resonance imaging
 Rectus femoris percent cross-sectional area 2.70 ± 0.76 4.29 ± 0.30 0.168
 Quadriceps femoris percent cross-sectional area 15.9 ± 0.61 21.6 ± 0.94 0.162
 CS/VL ratio (volume and percent cross-sectional area) 0.86 ± 0.19 0.48 ± 0.04 0.168
Molecular/histopathology
 Lateral head gastrocnemius myostatin mRNA fold change 1.35 ± 0.682 0.565 ± 0.454 0.192
 Overall average degenerating fibers (%) 2.58 ± 0.36 3.97 ± 1.21 0.082
 Cranial sartorius fiber cross-sectional area (mm2) 4,133 ± 233 2,661 ± 316 0.01
 Cranial sartorius centrally nucleated fibers (%) 20.7 ± 3.82 11.4 ± 5.23 0.132