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Table 1 Global phenotypes of different Bmal1 knockout models

From: The functional significance of the skeletal muscle clock: lessons from Bmal1 knockout models

  Whole body Bmal1 KO Muscle-specific Bmal1 KO
Standard Standard + rescue with mBmal1 a Inducible Standard Inducible
Circadian locomotor rhythm No No No Yes Yes Yes
Total activity level = = = =
Life span = = = = ND
Body weight = = = = ND
Muscle weight ND NDb = ND
Muscle fiber CSA ND ND = =
Muscle force (normalized) ND ND =
Muscle fiber-type profile (fast muscles) ND ND ND ↓ 2X = ↓ 2B
References [18, 19, 26] [32] [30] [27] [27] [31, 55]
  1. ND not determined, = unchanged, ↓ decreased, ↑ increased, CSA cross-sectional area
  2. aMice with muscle-specific rescue of Bmal1 null mice, obtained by crossing Bmal1 global KO mice with Bmal1 transgenic mice bearing a Bmal1 DNA construct driven by the muscle-specific α-actin promoter
  3. bMuscle weight was not determined but was likely unchanged because body weight and the weight of most organs, including fat deposits, were unchanged