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Table 1 Additional golden retrievers with degenerative myopathy as of 1988

From: The golden retriever model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Age at clinical onset Gender Clinical signs CK EMG Pathologic lesions Outcome Reference
10 days M Body stunting; glossal, shoulder, and neck muscle hypertrophy; bradycardia NE NE Gross body stunting and muscle hypertrophy. Skeletal muscle histologic evidence of variation in fiber size, hyaline fibers with calcification, and basophilia consistent with regeneration; inflammation including giant cells; milder lesions in the heart. Euthanasia at 10 days [88]
6–8 weeks (two littermates were described) M Stiff gait with progression to a stilted, shuffling gait by 3 months. Fatigue with exercise, occasional respiratory distress, neck stiffness, resistance to jaw opening, and glossal hypertrophy. Elevated “Myotonia” Severe degenerative muscle disease: myofiber necrosis, mononuclear phagocytosis, giant cells, and calcification Euthanasia at 6–9 months when the dogs were still ambulatory [91]
4–5 months M Generalized muscle atrophy, stiff gait, dysphagia, stenotic breathing, exercise intolerance. NE CRDs Gross muscle atrophy; scattered necrotic fibers undergoing phagocytosis, increased endomysial connective tissue, calcification of myofibers, targetoid fibers, and fiber type grouping; myocardial degeneration and calcification 8 months at biopsy; outcome not given. [82]
8 weeks M Stiff, shuffling gait; simultaneous pelvic limb advancement (bunny hopping); overextension at the carpus, overflexion at the tarsus, and abduction of the paws; stifle adduction; hypertrophy of proximal limb muscles; mild vertebral kyphosis; trismus; drooling. 13,435 IU/l CRDs and positive sharp waves 4 months: fiber size variation, hyaline and necrotic fibers with myophagocytosis; centrally nucleated fibers; basophilic fibers consistent with regeneration. 8 months: progressive changes with mineralization and endoymysial and perimysial fibrosis; fibers with chains of central nuclei; fiber grouping. Euthanasia at 8 months [93]