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Table 1 Summary of endogenous murine skeletal muscle fibro-adipogenic progenitors

From: Origins, potency, and heterogeneity of skeletal muscle fibro-adipogenic progenitors—time for new definitions

Murine cell Canonical Markers Alternative markers Negative markers Localization Differentiation potential Additional comments References
Embryonic-fetal FAPs PDGFRα
TCF7L2/TCF4
Osr1
Osr2
Hox11
Tbx3
Tbx4
Tbx5
Sca-1a
CD34a
Adam-12
Tie-2a
CD45
CD31
Ter119
α7-Integrin
Muscle-associated connective tissue and muscle interstitium Robust in vitro adipogenic and fibrogenic differentiation but low chondrogenic and no detectable osteogenic or myogenic potential. Osr1+ progenitors also give rise to embryonic fibroblast-like cells in the dermis and FABP4+ adipocytes in white fat pads Little is known about their origin, fate, gene regulation, function, stemness, and self-renewal [24]; [26]; [57];
Adult FAPs PDGFRα
SCA-1
Hic1
CD90
Decorin (Dcn)
PDGFRβb
Col1a1b
TCF7L2/TCF4b
CD34b
Adam-12c
Tie-2c
Gli1d
CD45
CD31
Ter119
α7-Integrin
NG2/Cspg4
Rsg5
Fascia, epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium; abundant as perivascular cells Adipocytes, myofibroblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes after muscle injury and in vitro, with no myogenic potential Required for adult skeletal muscle regeneration and homeostasis; cellular and molecular dysfunction in pathology and disease [11, 12, 27, 28]; [1]; [13]; [58]; [14]; [58]; [59]; [60]; [61]; [62], [2, 15, 53, 63, 64];
  1. aThese markers have not been studied in the embryo with detail
  2. bThese markers are also expressed by different cell types, including satellite cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells
  3. cAdam-12 and Tie-2 expression appears to be restricted for a subpopulation of FAPs
  4. dGli1 defines a subpopulation of murine muscle FAPs with pro-myogenic and anti-adipogenic functions [65]