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Table 3 Summary of drug strategies to target muscle fibro-adipogenic progenitor differentiation and fate

From: Origins, potency, and heterogeneity of skeletal muscle fibro-adipogenic progenitors—time for new definitions

Therapy Target Cell survival Proliferation Cell death/apoptosis Fibrogenesis Adipogenesis References
AG1296 PDGFR kinase activity inhibitor Not evaluated Reduced? Not evaluated Reduced Not evaluated [11]
AICAR AMPK activator Reduced Not evaluated Induced Not evaluated Reduced Saito et al., 2020 [148]
Azathioprine Immunosuppressant Not affected Reduced Not affected Not affected Reduced Reggio et al 2019 [149]
Batimastat MMPs inhibitor (including MMP14) Not affected Not affected Not affected Not affected Reduced [14] [104]
BMS493 Pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) inverse agonist Not evaluated Reduced Not evaluated Reduced Induced spontaneous differentiation [69]
Dexamethasone Glucocorticoid receptor Induced Induced Not affected Not evaluated Induced Dong et al., 2014 [150]
HDAC inhibitorsa (TSA and Pracinostat) HDACs Not evaluated Not evaluated Not evaluated Reduced Reduced [151] [28] [152];
LY2090314 & other GSK inhibitors GSK3 inhibitors Slightly decreased Not affected Not affected Mixed results Reduced [153]
Metformin AMPK activator Not evaluated Reduced Not evaluated Not evaluated Reduced [16]
Molsidomine NO donating molecule Reduced? Reduced? Not evaluated Reduced Reduced [154]
Promethazine hydrochloride H1 histamine receptor Not affected Not affected Not affected Not evaluated Reduced [72]
SB525334/SB431542 TGFBR kinase activity inhibitor Reduced Reduced Induced after long treatment Reduced Not evaluated [147] [11, 12]
TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, crenolanib, sorafenib, and masitinib) Abl, PDGFRs, Kit, DDRs, p38 Reduced Reduced Induced Reduced Reduced and/or Induced [59]; [155]; [11, 12]; b[16]; [146];
  1. aHDACs-mediated effects on FAP fate are seen only in young mdx but not aged mdx mice
  2. b[16] reported that imatinib enhances the amount of perilipin+ FAP-derived adipocytes in vitro