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Table 1 Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in muscle differentiation

From: Long noncoding RNAs, emerging players in muscle differentiation and disease

LncRNA Site of action Function Effector molecule Regulation during muscle differentiation References
eRNAs (CE and DRRRNAs) Nucleus Transcriptional activation MyoD Up [30]
Gtl2/Meg3 Nucleus Epigenetic repression PRC2 Up [55, 56]
H19 Nucleus and cytoplasm Epigenetic repression, miRNAs sponge PRC2, let-7 miRNAs Up [57]
Linc-MD1 Cytoplasm miRNAs sponge HuR Up [46, 58]
Malat1 Nucleus Epigenetic repression, pre-mRNA splicing Cbx4 and SR family of splicing factors Up [59]
Neat1 Nucleus Structural integrity of nuclear paraspeckles Various RNA-binding proteins Up [60]
Nctc1 Nucleus? Unknown Unknown Up [61]
SRA Nucleus Scaffold factor MyoD Up [62, 63]
SINE containing lncRNAs Cytoplasm mRNA decay STAU1 and STAU2 Up [64]
Yams Nucleus Transcriptional activation Unknown Up/down [65]
  1. eRNAs: enhancer RNAs; CE and DRRRNAs: Core Enhancer and Distal Regulatory Region RNAs; Gtl2/Meg3: Gene trap locus 2/Maternally expressed gene 3; Malat1: Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1; Neat1: Nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1; Nctc1: Noncoding transcript 1; SRA: Steroid receptor RNA Activator; SINE containing lncRNAs: Short Interspersed Elements containing lncRNAs; Yams: YY1-associated muscle lincRNAs.