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Table 1 Phenotypic characterization and muscle weights standardized to tibia length for male and female C57BL/6J mice at middle age (15-month SED), old age (23-month SED), and following 34 weeks of RWE intervention (23-month EXE)

From: Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice

  Male Female
15-month SED 23-month SED 23-month EXE 15-month SED 23-month SED 23-month EXE
Phenotype characteristics
 Abdominal fat pad (% BW) 1.0 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.4* 1.8 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.4* 1.3 ± 0.2
 Blood glucose (mmol/L) 10.7 ± 0.3 9.2 ± 0.4 8.7 ± 0.5 11.6 ± 1.0 9.9 ± 0.4* 9.6 ± 0.3
 Tibia length (cm) 1.80 ± 0.01 1.80 ± 0.01 1.82 ± 0.2 1.82 ± 0.01 1.81 ± 0.01 1.83 ± 0.01
 Heart weight (mg) 174.6 ± 7.2° 165.3 ± 6.2° 187.3 ± 7.0° 135.4 ± 7.1 145.0 ± 5.0 169.3 ± 7.0
Whole muscle weights
 Quadriceps (g)/tibia (cm) 119.1 ± 3.6°°° 101.6 ± 2.6*°°° 112.4 ± 2.9° 87.7 ± 2.3 76.7 ± 2.0* 84.6 ± 1.6
 Gastrocnemius (g)/tibia (cm) 93.8 ± 3.3°°° 83.1 ± 2.0*°°° 89.2 ± 2.7° 67.4 ± 1.3 66.2 ± 2.3 69.9 ± 1.5
 Soleus (g)/tibia (cm) 5.5 ± 0.3 ° 4.5 ± 0.2* 6.6 ± 0.3♦♦♦ 4.7 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.2 5.7 ± 0.4♦♦♦
 TA (g)/tibia (cm) 28.0 ± 1.7°°° 24.1 ± 0.7*°°° 26.5 ± 1.7° 20.5 ± 1.0 18.3 ± 0.3 20.1 ± 1.2
 EDL (g)/tibia (cm) 6.8 ± 0.4°°° 6.3 ± 0.3°°° 7.3 ± 0.1° 5.6 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.2 5.9 ± 0.5
 Triceps (g)/tibia (cm) 72.6 ± 2.2°°° 68.2 ± 1.2°°° 68.5 ± 2.5° 52.2 ± 1.0 52.0 ± 2.3 53.2 ± 1.2
  1. Values are means ± SEM
  2. EDL extensor digitorum longus, EXE exercise, NS no significance, RWE resistance wheel exercise, SED sedentary, TA tibialis anterior
  3. *Significant difference between 15-month SED within the same sex; *P < 0.05
  4. Significant difference between 23-month SED within the same sex; P < 0.05; ♦♦ P < 0.05; ♦♦♦ P < 0.05
  5. °Significance between male and female mice in the same group; °P < 0.05; °°P < 0.05; °°°P < 0.05